CHAPTER 8 The Indo-European Patriarchalization of the World
From the content:
– The Big Bang – The Discovery of Biological Fatherhood
– All Power to the Man
– Women Lose their Proud and Dignified Position and get Completely Disenfranchised
– The Denegation of the Achievements of the Wise Women
– The Enormous Medical Knowledge was the great achievement
of the Matriarchal World
– The Knowledge of Medicine Atrophies among the First Dynasties
– The decline of medical science – the result of the incapacitation of woman
– The Contributions of the Female Artists are disregarded
– The Intellectual Contribution of Women was Faded Out
– Scribes Created a Complete Alphabet
– Hieroglyphs: The Comics of the first Dynastic Period
– Mass Extinction of Women in the Old Kingdom
– Women Without Right to Be Buried
– Deprivation of Liberty: Caught in the Harem
– Woman as ›Trade Commodity‹: A Worthwhile Business
– Coveted ›Commodities‹: Stolen Children of Foreign Countries
– The Pedo-criminal Predilection for Children
– Sexually Abused Daughters: Pharaonic Incest
– The Father-Daughter Incest in the Indo-European Patriarchy
– Matriarchal Veneration of the Vulva and Patriarchal Revenge
– And… they are not ashamed…
– Male Circumcision: The assault on male sexuality
The Big Bang – The Discovery of Biological Fatherhood
At some point in the late Neolithic Indo-European cattle breeders in the southern Russian steppes observed and understood the role of males in the breeding of young animals and recognized their own role in the creation of offspring and thus biological paternity. Gerda Lerner can come to the same conclusion, she writes: »With the domestication of animals and the development of animal husbandry, the role of male in reproduction was recognized. « This knowledge fundamentally changed men and the world. The discovery probably caused some excitement among its discoverers. It may have generated bewilderment, astonishment, joy, an unprecedented feeling of importance, an inflated self-confidence, even triumph in them. The impact that the discovery of fatherhood had on the psyche and conduct of men in their human relationships, however, is underestimated and neglected by scientists. We should consider these, however, and seek to understand what impact this had on the progress and course of history. Some men may have suspected that women knew the man’s share in procreation, but had deliberately kept it a secret, thus cheating them out of the fair recognition and ›honor‹ for their contribution. Others envy women their creative power, which is not so rare that they can get pregnant and give birth. In the case of narcissistic personalities, whether fact or assumption, this may have caused anger and hatred against the women who until now enjoyed special respect and admiration as the sole creators and donors of new life. Men may have seen themselves as victims of women, treated unjustly, insulted, humiliated and ostracized, which made them seek revenge. We do not know whether that was the case or not, but what we can still see today is a variety of consequences in hatred against women. On the other hand, the discovery of their biological part in the process of having offspring, such as an adrenaline rush, alcohol or drug state of euphoria, must have been going to the heads of some men. Gradually they began to believe that they were the real masters of creation. The brutal reactions that followed the discovery over time; do show that the discovery sparked serious consequences. The first attacks on peaceful matriarchal settlements, massacres and destruction were noted. Whole cities were conquered and finally the ›first war in world history was waged‹, which led to the complete destruction of the city of Hamoukar in northern Syria. [See ›Es reicht – 5000 Jahre Patriarchat sind genug‹ (It’s enough – 5,000 years of patriarchy are enough) 2019] The success and rich booty of their first raids and conquests inebriated the warriors; the successful submission of matriarchal cultures was overwhelming and made them triumph. Myths tell of fantasies of superiority, of drunkenness and triumphs. Their claims to rule increased increasingly in the grandiose claim of sole creative power. Their urge for validity – starting with the first Sumerian and Egyptian kings – degenerated and claimed divinity and omnipotence for themselves. In any case, the discovery of fatherhood was the moment when some men saw their previous role in human history as too modest and underestimated. Their response was the invention of the first male gods and their own deification. Divine help and priestly myths should support the size and importance of the role of men and ›legalize‹ their struggle against women. That is the goal of all religions to this day.
All Power to the Man
In all countries conquered by hordes of Indo-Europeans, we find the despotic characteristics of power and control of the ruling class spreading like an endemic plague. Primarily, the invaders, hungry for fame, honor and booty, are concerned with smashing the powerful matriarchal structures and removing women from power. We saw how this happened in Chapter 4 based on the cylinder seals of Uruk and Susa (Amiet).
Patriarchal ideology assumes that: »Every human being [that means: every male!] Constantly needs recognition and the typical male way of wanting recognition is the positive feedback for demonstrations of power, oppression, domination and humiliation of other people. He asks for confirmation of this image of ›masculinity‹. And this confirmation is inevitable, because those who refuse the confirmation face massive punishment. « (Arno Gruen, quoted by Rudi Zimmerman 2014)
In Sumer, the patriarchal legislation gives us a particularly clear insight into the state measures for the disempowerment, humiliation and elimination of women from power. First women were removed from the government, and then their private life was massively restricted and regulated by marriage and family laws. There are indications that according to the mother-rights of early Mesopotamia the women had multiple spouses. But King Urukagina ends the state of matriarchy with the removal of polyandry and the position of the woman deteriorates rapidly (RA, ›Frau‹) Women who then married two men were stoned to death and those who said words to a man that they should not say had their teeth knocked out (Kramer 1963, p. 83). The laws of the patriarchal Codex of Hammurabi gave man a dominant position and extraordinary repressive authority over woman. Assyrian and Babylonian man, as the head of the family, was superordinate to the woman, and he had the right to kill her in certain offenses, such as adultery. The women were legally required to give birth to ensure sufficient ›human material‹ for the aggressive warfare and slavery work. By marriage, even forced, the woman had (and still have) to leave her own clan and enter that of the man, thus she was, at once, completely delivered at his mercy, often a conjugal slavery. Even after his death, she was not released from his clan, but yet, she had to marry her husband’s brother or father. If she did not take the man, who was given to her without her consent, she was drowned in the river. The husband had the right to pawn his wife for a debt, or to sell her as a slave. Even his own mother was in danger of being sold by the son [RA, ›Gesetz‹ und ›Frau‹ (Law and Woman]. »If a wife says to her husband, whom she hates, ›You are not my husband‹, she should be thrown into the river. If a husband says to his wife, ›You are not my wife‹, he should pay half a mine silver. « (Schmökel 1974, p. 94)
The overthrow from matriarchy to patriarchy and the disenfranchisement of women can be observed in all countries of the Middle East that were successively afflicted by the Indo-European conquerors and the Aryan priestly caste accompanying them. The holy books, the Bible and the Koran, record the process for us particularly clearly. Robert Briffault writes: »The patriarchal clans of the Hebrews have always stood for the very type of patriarchal organization, yet it was the study of their customs that Robertson Smith illustrated the transition from matriarchal to patriarchal institutions. Semitic kinship terms refer, as among most peoples, to maternal rather than to paternal descent, and the clan or tribe to which a man belongs is frequently spoken of as his ‘mother’. The Arab genealogists of the time of the rise of Islam, when patriarchy was strongly established, were at pains to exhibit Semitic descent as patriarchal, but they were often compelled to recognize that the older clans were metonymic [matrilineal]. Among the Hebrews the same situation had arisen long before, and they endeavored also to interpret their genealogies in terms of male descent. Yet the Jewish rabbis themselves, at a comparatively late date, acknowledged the four Matriarchs, Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel und Leah, had occupied a more important position than the three Patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. According to Robertson Smith, the tribe of Levi was originally metronymous [matrilineal], being the tribe of Leah for whom the husband Levi had to be invented. Israel itself, the tribe which gave its name to the whole nation, was originally the tribe of Sarah, Israel being her son. Even in patriarchal times women built cities, i.e. founded families. Sherah built Beth-Horon the nether, and the upper, and Uzzen-Sherah (1 Chronicles vii. 24). With the early Hebrews the regular practice was for the man to leave his father and mother und cleave to his wife’ that is to take his abode with his wife’s clan. Isaac takes it for granted that Jacob when he marries, will dwell with his wife’s people. In fact, Jacob lives twenty years in the home of his wives and when he departs by stealth, Laban pursues him and tells him he has no right to take them or even his own children away, and claim them as belonging to their mother’s father. Samson’s wife remains with her own people. Joseph’s children by his Egyptian wife have to be adopted before they can be regarded as belonging to his tribe. Matrilocal marriage passed away when the Jews settled in Canaan but survives to this day  among the Bedawi of Arabia. To the true Bedawi, marriage is usually matrilocal. « (Briffault 1959, p. 8o f).
With Moses, the leader of the Hebrews and his aggressive misogynistic ideas about God, a brutal fight against the women began. Moses publicly calls for the murder of women: »When a priest’s daughter begins to whore, she should be burned with fire, because she has desecrated her father. « (Leviticus 21,9) The Levitical authors of the Old Testament »called all sexual autonomous women, whores, and prostitutes, including the holy women of the temple, and called for the enforcement of their own patriarchal attitudes concerning a sexual property on women« (Stone 1988, p. 262). »In the Hosea-book, the polemic against certain sexual practices and against the Asherah plays an important role. Every loss of faith in YHWH is defamed as ›whoring‹. This favors the suspicion that the loss of faith in Yahweh takes place primarily in the sexual-erotic area and that women are particularly at risk or would pose a particular danger in this context. « (Keel 2004, p. 52)
Hatred against women also characterizes the early Christian period in the patriarchal Roman Empire. Emperor Constantine, who put his young wife Fausta alive in boiling water on the mere suspicion of adultery, underlined his Christian conviction by declaring abortion a severe crime. In contrast, fathers had the right to get rid of marital infants and to practice infanticide in the form of strangling, shattering, drowning, stabbing or suspending. Wives who did not fulfill their primary task of giving birth to ›his‹ children or who were sexually unfaithful faced the same fate. So far, the autonomous and independent women determined themselves and their sexuality, and they decided about the time and number of children they wanted.
Women Lose their Proud and Dignified Position and get Completely Disenfranchised
As we have seen, at the beginning of Dynastic Egypt the powerful matriarchal queen was dethroned, politically disempowered, socially discriminated, economically dispossessed, and finally murdered. With the seizure of power by the conquerors, the patriarchal ideology is gradually institutionalized and systematized. The wealth of the land, the herds and the people become the property of the king. People lose their freedom, and are persecuted and enslaved. The knowledge and skills that have been carefully compiled over millennia by means of ›trial and error‹ are being destroyed. Everything and everyone has to serve exclusively the claims of the king, his clique and his priesthood. Repeatedly we recognize the clear clash of the two completely different forms of life and society and their assessment: On the one hand, there is the originally liberal-matriarchal time before the overthrow, mostly denied, concealed or distorted, represented as chaos by traditional Egyptology. On the other hand, we recognize the beginning of the patriarchal epoch that continues to this day, which gradually deprives people of all freedom through restrictive laws and controls. With increasing patriarchalization in the Old Kingdom, women who had once lived autonomously, independently of men and sexually free suffered from this – what hypocritical scholars call promiscuity. You lose the freedom of self-determination. What we know about the life of women after the patriarchal conquerors came to power in Egypt is different, often contradictory, does not take a linear course and changes constantly over the course of the 3000 years of the Dynastic Era. From the so-called wisdom book of a high official of the fifth dynasty, the vizier Ptahhotep, which was written between 2375-2350, it sounds as if, the woman and especially her sexuality had to be tamed by man:
Gladden her heart during the time of your life,
for she is a useful field for her master.
Do not separate from her, but do not let her decide
and keep her away from the Force and restrain her.
Because a woman is a storm if she can do what she wants.
Wolfgang Helck comments: »The woman in Ancient Egypt is useful – but of co-determination or equality no trace! « And indeed, the ›wise‹ Ptahhotep would not have had to give his instructions for the disempowerment of the woman if this would have corresponded to the previous times.
The Denegation of the Achievements of the Wise Women
The culture, knowledge and skills of thousands of years of experience – such as the enormous knowledge of healing – degenerated and disappeared under the new rulers. With the Sati murders – the healing knowledge of the wise women was fought and eradicated. The cause was, that this knowledge was unwanted, even dangerous, it could hinder the establishment of a patriarchal state. The healing women had knowledge about birth control, obstetrics, contraception, and abortion. A ruling class whose goal is to gain wealth through wars of expansion and labor exploitation needs people, many people! »Strikingly, there are no prescriptions in the medical texts that are supposed to make a conception possible but quite a number to prevent or avert them. « (Brunner LÄ II, p. 336 ff) Later on midwives who had previously taught women their knowledge of birth control were imprisoned in the harem. The danger lying in their power which had to be stopped and eliminated in order to accelerate the desired production of needed people.
The profession of the midwife was declared as impure for women [!]
and was adopted by men
Male midwives in the grave of the doctor Ankhmahor in Saqqara, 6th Dyn.
(After Arno Eggebrecht 1984, p. 160)
In the tomb of the physician Ankhmahor of the sixth Dynasty in Saqqara is witnessed how two men act as obstetricians. Priest-physicians are »particularly interested in the bodies of women because these are the ones who give birth to new life« (Werner Hoch 1991, p. 176). This interest of the ›priest-physicians‹ is easy to understand. It was and is about getting female sexuality and fertility under male control. Besides the martial killing power, patriarchal men wants also have the power over life, in particular the unborn life and the mother-belly. An inventory of the present shows, this dominance over the body and autonomy of woman which began in the Bronze Age retained until today. To this day, patriarchal men, mostly with the help of the clergy, have the audacity to enact laws that deprive women of the right to their own bodies and prohibit them from birth control and abortion. And this in a time in which the same men tolerate, advocate, promote and distribute the manufacture and sale of deadly weapons, earn incredible sums of money and have them consecrated by the clergy.
Where were these hypocrites, ›fighters for life‹, when millions of Jewish women, including reams of pregnant women, men, and children of all ages to millions were led into the gas chambers? And have they forgotten the crimes of Christian fundamentalists committed against many million innocent women who were accused of witchcraft? And did they ever study the arrogance of the Christians imposing their faith on the ancient cultures as the better, the ›true‹ faith? Missionaries destroyed and still destroy valuable indigenous cultures to this day. They taught peaceful men to believe that they were God’s image and that they were far above women. Then they began to despise and beat their wives. [see Wolf ›Die christliche Missionierung in aller Welt‹ and ›Die Verbrechen der christlichen Kolonisierung und Missionierung‹ (The crimes of Christian colonization and missionization].
Since 5000 years Indo-European Patriarchy rules our world with hatred, violence, oppression, exploitation and war. Ruthless men greedy for power and profit rule our world, enact political laws and religious dogmas. This is hard to bear for anyone who is not part of the elite in power. But the women suffer the worst. That men arrogate the right, to decide over the abdomen of women is an unbearable presumptuousness. What do these bigheaded patriarchs and clerical bachelors permit themselves, what gives them the right to make rules for women, despise and humiliate them?
Women, who avorted, are accused of being murderers and German Cardinal Meisner compares abortion to the crimes of Hitler and Stalin. Here the peak of hypocrisy and misogyny has long been exceeded. Are these men mentally ill who govern our world, are they suffering from severe psychic neurosis or a religious megalomania? Why do not these joyless zealots fight with the same vehemence against the murder of millions of living, in the wars? Why do they allow born children to be shredded and mutilated by bombs and mines? Why do they not object to sexual mutilation to which millions of little girls are exposed? Why do they not fight against the sexual abuse of children, even and specially in their own ranks? Why do they assume that children are dying of hunger? Where are these pseudo-sanctimonious ›fathers‹ when mothers weep for hungry dying children? Where do they hide when thousands of women die from illegal abortion practices? For example, in the most Catholic country in Asia, in the Philippines, where women can no longer afford food for another child? How can these bigots accept responsibility for prohibiting contraception for the poorest of the poor without offering them genuine support and a way out of poverty? The war against women and the continuation of patriarchal misogynistic practices until today demonstrates the infinite debate on abortion laws, over and over, all over the world. After this digression into the consequences of the 5,000-year-old patriarchy, we come back to Egypt, which has another few surprises to offer.
The Enormous Medical Knowledge was the great achievement
of the Matriarchal World
Most Egyptologists accept the completely unrealistic assumption that the highly evolved medicine that we encounter at the beginning of the dynastic period is ›invented‹ by Imhotep, the architect of the step pyramid, in the time of the third dynasty. A real jack of all trades, this man. The gynecology – the oldest direction of folk and natural medicine in general – had to be created and tested by women for millennia through trial and error and passed on orally. The women as life-givers had good reasons to do so. This is attested by myths of all cultures in the world, »which describe a time when only women knew about the secrets of life and death and therefore only they were able to practice the magical art of healing. Then, as some of the stories say, in phases of crises and catastrophes, their highly esteemed position as guardians of sanctified wisdom, was purposely and violently wrested from them. « (Achterberg 1991, p. 7)
»The folk tradition of the Egyptians leaves the art of healing
reach up to the beginning of History. « (Hermann Kees)
»The leading period of factual investigations seems to have been the Old Kingdom«, writes Hermann Kees. »Also the studies on gynecological diseases recorded during the 12th dynasty … the masterpiece of Egyptian science, the ancient Egyptian vascular doctrine, which were believed to have originated in the eighteenth dynasty, must, according to linguistic criteria, be dated much older. « (Kees 1933, p. 308) The medical papyrus ›Ebers‹, written around 1500, experts found that the role was a transcript of much older patterns. The surgical papyrus ›Edwin Smith‹ has decisively confirmed the outstanding share of the earliest dynastic Egypt in Egyptian medicine. Its language requires »its approach to the Old Kingdom, but its whole nature introduces us to a completely new type of medical literature, the exact descriptive method: it is a tightly-spaced, clearly structured (that means a lot in Egypt) textbook from which all magical details for the domestic use of the doctor are left out. « (Kees 1933, p. 311) The medical papyri showed tremendous knowledge. They not only report about gynecology but also the treatment of spinal cord tuberculosis, arteriosclerosis, rheumatism, gallstones, smallpox, polio, anemia, epilepsy, gout and cecum. At least 700 drugs are mentioned and 48 surgical procedures such as trepanations are described; everything from skull fracture to spinal injury. The authors already knew that »the control of the lower limbs is done by the brain, an insight that was not seen in Europe 400 years ago« (Lissner 1955, p. 58).
»Medical papyrus rolls treat gynecology, the specialty of female doctors. The role of Kahun may have been written by female students of Sais. It reports on female specialists who made pregnancy diagnoses, predicted the child’s sex, performed infertility tests, and treated dysmenorrhea, irregular menstrual bleeding. Female surgeons performed caesarean sections, operated on breast cancer, and straightened bones with splints. « (Alic 1991, p. 33 f) »Although the papyrus was recognized by Ebers as a textbook of internal medicine, it remained unnoticed, mainly because the ingredients of the recipes also consisted of the feces of flies, lions, gazelles and other animals. « (Hoch 1991, p. 172) f) When the papyrus ›Smith‹ was found in the early twenties of the last century, the experts realized that the female physicians in the Nile Valley had enormous knowledge. »The dirt-pharmacy of the Egyptians suddenly appeared in a different light, as the experts discovered to their surprise that feces and urine from humans and animals contain antibiotic components. In addition, not surprisingly, they noticed that the Egyptians used copper, clay, and alum to counter the trachoma, the same remedies that are found in a modern eye disease textbook. « Hoch adds:
»Inasmuch as the history begins with the invention of writing around 3000,
we can only guess how old these proceedings are. « (Hoch 1991)
The Knowledge of Medicine Atrophies among the First Dynasties
The invaders and their pharaonic descendants were barbarians, who stood on a level of scientific, spiritual, social and cultural development which was hardly able to appreciate the knowledge of matriarchy. On the contrary, they even feared and wanted to make it disappear through the murder of women. The Women’s Academy of Sais was closed. Only Udjahorresnet persuaded Darius I (521–486) to restore the school of medicine, the house of life, to what he boasts: »I founded it with all its students, sons of elite men; no son of a poor was there. « Moreover, we can assume that there was no longer a woman involved, and possibly the advanced knowledge and thoroughness of the female physicians of the old days was forfeited. From then on, the women were kept away from the knowledge; the daughters were not even allowed to visit the school. »She’s being prepared in the household for her role as a wife. As part of the family, she and all members of the family could be called to work by state authorities and local rulers …. The son has a clear preferential position. « (Franke LÄ, VI, p. 611)
Egyptologists wonder why the scientific thinking of medicine dwindled with the beginning of the Old Kingdom: »Therefore, we may express at most the amazement that the culturally advanced times of the Middle and New Kingdom seemingly lost interest in such theoretical considerations. « (Kees, 1933, p. 311) While many medical specialists were found in the Old Kingdom, only a few were found in the later epochs. »The stagnant character of Egyptian medicine over the centuries, which was far from making any progress, seems on the contrary to decay. « (Leca 1988, p. 108) Siegfried Morenz speaks of the »decline of cultural life in the field of medicine. « The assumption »that scientific medicine suffocated at the end of the New Kingdom in increasing overgrowth by incantation and magic«, although in this form no longer tenable, »but at least must be conceded partially. « (Westendorf, LÄ, III, p. 1274/76)
Something similar happened again a few centuries ago in our latitudes. »The male profession of the doctor arose as a war against the women, who continued in campaigns against midwives throughout the whole Late Middle Ages. In the eighteenth century, men finally achieved supremacy in this profession. « (French 1992, p. 171) One of the devastating consequences was the increase of mothers dying in childbirth. The physician Ignaz P. Semmelweis (1818–1865) found the cause of the fatal childbed fever in the lack of hygiene of the doctors who had supplanted the women from obstetrics. Semmelweis was taken to a lunatic asylum, probably due to intrigues by offended colleagues, where he died soon after he was admitted.
The decline of medical science – the result of the incapacitation of woman
Until a few decades ago, many scholars believed that the history of culture began with the ancient Greeks and that the Greek physicians were the ›inventors‹ and ›fathers‹ of medicine. »Names like Pythagoras, Aristotle and Hippocrates seem to prove that. In addition, since the latter was supposed to have been a great doctor of his time (in any case, Greek-loving generations made him to that), our medical knowledge began with the folk of the Hellenes. Even today, the future physicians speak the ›oath of Hippocrates‹, which defines the ethical duties of the profession. « (Hoch 1991, p. 171 f)
In Egypt, Isis remained the mighty Goddess of healing, even when male doctors seemed to dominate the art of healing. Egyptian testimonials rarely mention the names of famous doctors. After the Egyptian language has been masculinized – the feminine T-Ending was mostly omitted – we can just as well assume that it was a ›doctoress‹ or a ›priestess‹ when referring to a doctor or a priest of the Goddess. Wherever the woman was not already declared unimportant in antiquity, she can at least be devaluated in modern historiography. The medical doctor Jeanne Achterberg tells in her book ›The Woman as a Healer‹ about Guido Majno, who in 1975 in his book ›The Healing Hand‹, scarcely worth mentioning the healing Goddess of the ancient Sumer, although he went into detail about the healing system of the Sumerian period: »He quotes a reference to the priestesses in connection with an Akkadian treatise on the medical prognosis: ›If his testicles are inflamed, if his penis is covered with wounds, then he has gone to the high priestess of his god.‹ Following this Majno says, however, that the reader should ignore this reference to the ›High Priestess‹ as her function was not far from that of a prostitute. « (Achterberg 1991, p. 31) Imagine such a demeaning statement (from a woman) to a male gynecologist!
The decline of medicine and the economic and political disaster that began in the Old Kingdom are likely to have a great deal to do with the devaluation and elimination of women from the most important positions in Dynastic Egypt when men took over all aspects of public life and expelled the women. Joachim-Ernst Berendt (1985, p. 278) expresses it:
»Men have done what women can do better, a tremendous waste,
which is ultimately a waste of the total human potential, so even affects the men themselves –
and will affect more and more! A humanity struggling to survive will no longer be able
to afford to delegate tasks to a single group of people when it is clear that there is
another group more apt to solve them. «
The Contributions of the Female Artists are disregarded
The artist and craftsman lived in the village of Deir el-Medina in a »ghetto-like settlement. « (Eggebrecht 1984, p. 206) 120 families were forced to life, cramped in a confined space like in animal stables, surrounded by several insurmountable walls and monitored by the police at every turn. This shows how valuable and unique these people were for the rulers, and also that they did not do their work voluntarily and one was obviously afraid that they could elude their forced labor by escaping. There must have been many women among the artists, but they are forgotten. Only from an ostracon from the time of Ramses VI we hear from them. The necropolis administrator registered when the anointing oil was given, which was used to heal the battered hands of the workers in Deir el-Medina: »All the men of the workforce: there are 16 men and 46 women. « (Manfred Gutgesell 1989, p. 56) From this very special statement, we can conclude that three-quarters of the artists who did slave labor in the royal tombs were women. Accordingly, they contributed significantly to the art of Pharaonic Egypt.
These examples make it clear that caution is required in evaluating the much-cited ›scientific objectivity‹. In his book ›Frauen im Alten Ägypten‹ (Women in Ancient Egypt) Peter H. Schulze draws attention to women in leading positions and finds it astonishing how little observance has been made for the important position of women as scientists, priests and queen regents (1988, p. 118).
The Intellectual Contribution of Women was Faded Out
Some scientists suspect that the invention of writing is the ingenious achievement of a single intelligent head. That this clever head could belong to a woman’s body, however, seems to exceed their intelligence. How else could the blindness of Egyptologists be understood who have never noticed that the oldest representation of a ›scribe‹ on the Narmer palette and the mace-head of King Scorpion‹ is distinctively a female figure with female breasts and not a man, as hitherto claimed. Helck sees in the figure a »long-haired man, a ›shaman‹. In historical times this figure, which is clearly characterized by the panther skin, is called Sm, the ›venerable one‹. « (Helck 1987, p. 140 f) Obviously, for some people it is too unbelievable, too unexpected or too unbearable, to accept a woman, an educated woman, as the first scribe. It was not the presumptuous, barbaric chief, but a woman who at that time possessed education and culture.
The writer on the Narmer palette is a woman. Isn’t that so?
(Detail from the Narmer Palette)
Still in 2006 (!), writes the religious scholar H. A. Schlögl in his book ›Das Alte Ägypten‹: »The king is preceded by four figures, which carry the gods-standards, and then follows the head of the priest, whose title ›Tjt‹ is added. He might have received his magical power through his disguise with a bulky wig and a panther skin. « [Beck 2006, (Extract, Internet) The font researcher Werner Ekschmitt was also interested in the Narmer Palette. He sees and describes the sandal-wearer as a ›servitor‹ following the king, and mentions the hieroglyphs added. But the female writer preceding the king, and who is also labeled with hieroglyphics, he ›overlooks‹ (1980, p. 76 f). The same could be observed in the Museum of Cairo. In the description of the palette, all persons were listed, but not the writer, not even as scribe in the male form!
However, the female scribe cannot astonish. In Egypt, the Goddess ›Seshat‹ was the author of writing, arithmetic, and architecture. Her numinous sign was already registered in the first dynasty until it was displaced in patriarchal Egypt by the crafty god Thoth. Most of the time we hear that the ›man‹ invented scripture, but »the commonality of the above hints makes it very likely that it may have been women who pressed these first meaningful signs into the damp clay« (Stone 1988), p. 28). In the Eanna district of the Goddess Inanna in Uruk, the oldest evidence of Scripture was found (Roaf 1991, p. 60). The Sumerian Goddess Nidaba, the ›Scholar of the Sacred Halls‹, is the inventor and patroness of the Sacred Scripture, as evidenced by the Gilgamesh epic: The official writer of the Sumerian sky was a woman, and the invention of scripture is attributed to a Goddess (Stone 1988), P. 74).
Scholarly women do not seem to have been exceptional in the Old Kingdom, yet the Egyptologists John Baines and Jaromir Malek quite condescendingly assert that most women were ignorant of reading and writing, as if that was not the case for men as well! And just as presumptuous, the authors justify their statement that women were excluded from the most important intellectual areas of Egyptian culture and official service – »which they did not aspire to anyway« (Baines and Malek 1980, p. 205).
The pyramid of the King Unas in Saqqara, which houses one of the most beautiful documents of hieroglyphic writing-art, shows how women are ignored. The daughter of the king, Princess Idut, who also has a magnificent grave in Saqqara, was a gifted scribe. It is obvious that she is the artist who set her father an unforgettable memorial; if she were a son, one would easily accept this.
Errors of the scientists are particularly numerous,
when it concerns contributions of women to culture.
Scribes Created a Complete Alphabet
Various font researchers noticed mysterious inconsistencies in the hieroglyphic scripture. So Hans Jensen stated: »The superior intellectual achievement of the Egyptians is the creation of one-consonant signs, a letter alphabet. « The grave stelae of the murdered women of the first dynasty in Abydos are the most important evidence for the existence of a complete alphabet at the beginning of the dynastic period (Jensen 1969, p. 48). But this means that this letter alphabet is already present in the patriarchal power takeover and is a creation from the matriarchal period. As the female writer documents on the Narmer palette, the first scribe in Egypt is a woman. It is absurd to believe that in the warlike centuries before the First Dynasty such a ›culturally intellectual achievement‹ was possible. Wars destroy creativity and progress; people are totally committed to surviving. But as to what happened then, Jensen wonders: »One might expect that the Egyptians after they had come to a character-scripture, they would have dispensed with the word writing because with the 24 One-Consonant-Signs they would have been able, to write all the words, suitable to the vowels. Nevertheless, that did not happen. « (Jensen 1969, p. 56) On the contrary – Jensen noted a »superfluous accumulation of congruent or synonymous, ›redundant‹ multiple-writings« (1969, p. 96). The font researcher Werner Ekschmitt concludes: »So here we are faced with the astounding fact that the hieroglyphic script had a complete consonant-alphabet of twenty-four letters and thus would have existed the opportunity to throw off all the complicated ballast and go to the alphabet scripture. « For Ekschmitt it is clear that this could not have been hidden from the scribes, »their renunciation must then have other causes than just proverbial Egyptian conservatism« (1980, 82 f). He does not find a convincing explanation for this and states with astonishment: »The 24 consonants have always been used only as auxiliary characters. The Egyptian hieroglyphs are the only scripture whose numbers are increasing and not decreasing. « (Ekschmitt 1980, p. 96) He notes, like Jensen, the ›pleonastic spellings‹, »which can take quite adventurous forms and, in many cases lead to a literally triplicate writing, if, in fact, the determinative is appended to the many sound characters at the end« (ibid. 1980, p. 84).
Hieroglyphs: The Comics of the first Dynastic Period
All this is not surprising, it even makes sense. The conquerors spoke another language then the one of the indigene African Egyptians. The new rulers needed a writing system that should be understandable in several languages; comparable to today’s ›comics‹, which are also ›readable‹ for illiterates. An illustrated font can also be ›understood‹ without language-knowledge; it is completely independent of the reader’s language. A depicted tree is a tree, in whatever language the word is called and pronounced. We read from Ernst Doblhofer, another font-researcher: »The common feature of all pictographic writing, be it pictorial or ideographic, lies in the fact that there is no connection between the scripture image and the sound image, the sounds of the spoken language. A sequence of such images can be ›read‹ by all spectators with fairly great certainty, and there is no relationship between the figurative symbols on the one hand and the sounds of a language on the other hand; this ›scripture‹ does not represent speech sounds. « (Doblhofer 1993/2008, p. 22) The Dutch Egyptologist Henry Asselbergh, on the other hand, sees in the first hieroglyphics, »optically fixed sound-reproductions«, readable to the eye and audible to the ear as a spoken word (1961, p. 259). The redundancy made both, the meaning of the term and its sound possible.
Mass Extinction of Women in the Old Kingdom
With the conquerors‘ power takeover in Egypt, an ›inexplicable‹ dying of women sets in, »perhaps caused by the narrowing of the pelvis that has been apparent since the beginning of the Old Kingdom, leading to dangerous complications in the birth of a child« (Helck LÄ, II, p 307). This nonsensical explanation is surpassed only by its justification, which traces back the alleged narrowing of the pelvis »to the development and consequence of a selection for reasons of beauty« (Masali 1973, pp. 16 ff).
As we know from the Bible, all the people were killed during the ›land confiscation‹ of Canaan; only small girls who had had no sexual intercourse were spared. It is conclusive that the traumatized, raped and too young pregnant girls frequently died at the birth of their baby, often together with the newborn. In Egypt, this may have been the true reason for the ›inexplicable‹ death of women in the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The dying of women ended in a massive population decline, which was made up for by women captured on military campaigns. Helck reports: »Even at the beginning of the Old Kingdom, a large-scale slave trade from Asia is to be assumed. At the same time, the number of women introduced is higher than that of men« (Helck LÄ, II, p. 307).
There are no indications from the Neolithic period for a high mortality of women in childbirth, even not for high infant mortality. In the cemetery of Jebel Sahaba near the Nubian Wadi Halfa, among 52 entombed, only one baby under six months was found, one child between three and five and two between six and seven years (Hoffman 1979, p. 92). Because the healing knowledge of the women was much advanced they understood a lot about pregnancy, childbirth and child caring, the mortality was obviously low.
There is also no evidence for the so often postulated patriarchal desire for many descendants. The ideology of ›an abundance of children‹ does not come from women, but was the desire of the fathers to prove their potency and reproduce themselves in many sons. From this came the forced regulation of births at the advent of patriarchy.
The fact that male power-madness was not to be held back, emerges from a presentation by Rekhmire, which shows that »there were separate slave houses in which offspring was ›produced‹. « (Helck LÄ, V, p. 985) Also, the papyrus Harris I informs that there was a special settlement for women in the temple of Memphis during the period of the Ramesses’ residence, which served to the »serial production of humans. « Women were obliged to give birth; indeed, they were forced! Hitler’s ›Lebensborn‹ (fountain of life) and the Bosnian rape camps are by no means new inventions. As in Nazi Germany, it can also be assumed for Egypt that the fathers in these hatcheries belonged to the white, Indo-European conqueror race, which ›bred‹ fair-skinned people, the outer sign of belonging to the superior Aryan master race and today – to the white Christian culture.
Women Without Right to Be Buried
After the Sati murders of the first dynasty, only members of the nobility surrounding the king received a funeral, and among them are few women and barely any children. Probably the remaining women and children were thrown out into the fields or into the river (Murray JEA 1956, p. 86). In contrast to the predynastic cemeteries of the 5th and 4th millennium, in which about the same number of men and women were buried, a »blatant disproportion« (Endesfelder) between female and male burials can be observed in dynastic times. »In the area from Abu Rawash to Saqqara-South, excluding the royal burials, a total of 807 graves are known, from which clues can be obtained; 68 of them belong to women. These are almost exclusively women or daughters of kings. In the remaining 739 graves of male grave holders, only in 335 cases (i. e. less than half!), the wife is also taken into account in any way« (Endesfelder 1989, p. 47 ff).
»Lock them in, which creates subjugation. «
(Ptahhotep, Old Kingdom)
Deprivation of Liberty: Caught in the Harem
After the invaders came to power, not only were imprisoned young captured and kidnapped girls, but also gifted artist women in the kings palace (called ›temple‹, e.g. the ›temple‹ of Saqqara, the ›temple‹ of Medinet Habu, etc.) The Egyptian word for the harem is ›khent‹, and is the same as for prison and dungeon – and that’s what one has to imagine. In addition to the sexual exploitation that the young girls had to endure, the rulers used the female creativity, their ability to create and their workforce. In this labor camps, the imprisoned women, in addition to daily work for the palace, did profitable slave labor: e.g. weaving and dyeing fabrics. The beautiful dresses of the queens, pleated or with colorful embroidery with glass and semi-precious stones, were haute couture works. Magnificent wigs, toiletries, perfumes, oils, precious jewelry and works of art made of precious metals, wood, stone, metals, clay, glass, ivory, ostrich feathers, etc. were products made in the harem. The harem got an economic power factor of immeasurable importance. Beneficiaries were exclusively the parasitic men of the ruling class. The sales were a not inconsiderable source of revenue for the rulers. It is more than likely that behind the secured and guarded walls of the harem women made the famous death mask of Tutankhamun. Where else? The imprisoned women in the harem were called the ›locked away ones‹. They were frequently guarded by the ›head of the royal harem‹, by ›gatekeepers‹ and ›gate guardians‹. The latter prevented the ladies »from useless communication with the outside world«, says Adolf Erman (1984, p. 87). The ›useless traffic‹ was to prevent the contact of the queen and educated women of the country with the indigenous inhabitants. This prevented the Egyptians not only of their education, the old knowledge of e.g. of birth control, but also of their religious and cultural accomplishment; so, they were completely delivered to the despot’s arbitrariness-dominance. It bears witness to an unbelievable insensibility to transfigure these prisons – where women were deprived of their liberty, raped, sold, given away and used for forced labor – into luxury brothels with a »highly erotic atmosphere« (Schlichting). Egyptologist Robert Schlichting teaches us that this district »in which women are available as sexual objects« should not be viewed from a »socio-ethical point of view, because it represents an interior-political factor of power which is in line with the important position of the Queen and her court state. « (Schlichting LÄ, V, p. 920) The »interior-political factor of power« in the interests of the ruler stands above social ethics and morality toward women. The king’s harem show:
Prostitution has not ›always existed‹ and is not the ›oldest trade in the world‹,
but the perverse exploitation of women in patriarchy.
The practice of procuring and prostitution was also devised in Mesopotamia. Sumerian temple priests invented them in the 3rd millennium and used priestesses to bring men and income to the temple (French 1992, p. 129). »The morality that compelled women into sexual slavery, that much is clear, was introduced to fulfill the economic requirements of a strictly male-dominated system, namely the transfer of ownership from father to son, and the absorption of profits from women and child labor … [thus] a strictly hierarchical power structure could be maintained. « (Eisler 1987, p. 182)
Woman as ›Trade Commodity‹: A Worthwhile Business!
Since the beginning of the patriarchal act of power, women were treated like a commodity. Women were also dealt as political diplomatic fodder between the princes of the vassal states by the gentlemen. There are especially many testimonies of trafficking of women in the New Kingdom. Of course, women were not asked and their consent was not needed. Marriageable princely daughters were selled off by their fathers to the Egyptian king for his harem, »as a token of faithfulness«, says Erika Feucht. »At Thutmosis III the prince’s daughter is ranked among the levies with her rich dowry. Amenhotep III and Ramesses II consider them as precious gifts. « (Feucht HÄB 1990, p. 39)
From Amenhotep II we hear: »His Majesty came to Memphis thoroughly happy. The list of his prey included: 550 Marjannu (Aryan chariot warriors) and 240 of their wives; 640 children of princes; 232 girls of princes; 323 principal daughters; 270 women of the princes of all foreign countries; together 2214 women with all jewelry of silver and gold. « (see Reeves and Bibelatlas (bible atlas) 1989, p. 43) »A particularly special treasure were 270 female singers, who Amenophis II ›captured with their devices of the heart’s delight of silver and gold‹. « (E. Eggebrecht 1984, p. 90) It was specified that women brought with them the most precious thing they had: their gold and silver jewelry. Pharaoh was very interested in it and took the women and jewelry right at the time of their capture. The trade in women was worthwhile for the rulers. Just as lustfully as the women were awaited, one expected their huge sums of gold and silver brought by them. Amenhotep III »let draw up large commemorative scarabs, made in reminiscence to this wonderful event. Incidentally, one can see from this specification, how many crowds of women the king’s harem has harbored«, imprisoned! (Erman 1984, p. 88).
In the Amarna Letters, the correspondence between Amenhotep III and later with Amenhotep IV, Akhenaten, and the northern vassal states, were mentioned several foreign princesses who were traded to Egypt along with their vast fortunes. 317 servants; Tushratta’s daughter Tadukhipa was accompanied by 270 female and 30 male servants accompanied a sister of the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil, Gilukhipa. Kadashman-Enlil, worried about the fate of his missing sister, writes to Akhenaten (Amarna Letter EA1): »I have just heard what you have written to me, you are asking me to marry my daughter, but my sister, who my father has given to you, already is with you and no one has seen her since to know if she is alive or dead. « From that can be seen that the Babylonian princesses deported to Egypt were not even allowed to receive messengers of their families in the harem of Akhenaten (Helck 1985, ›Nofret‹, p. 12). »Reading Pharaoh’s correspondence with his trustful kings is an eerie experience«, writes Reeves, »in which the yearning for foreign, female bodies played an important role. « (Reeves, 2002, p. 74) In a letter to the Pharaoh is documented a promise of a submissive father to provide his daughter to the king:
»Speak to the king, my lord, my god, my sun:
Message of Shatiya, the ruler of Enishasi [Lebanon],
your servant, the dust under the feet of the king, of my lord …
Herewith I am sending you my daughter to the palace,
to the King, my Lord, my God, my Sun. «
Conversely, there were also business-minded fathers who let their daughters be paid with gold. Thus it is to be read of an unknown letter writer: »With regard to the gold for which I wrote to you, send me as much as you can, as much as possible … [then] I will give you my daughter. « – A true barter! It is noticeable that trade is always made between men. No trace of the mothers or of the consent of the daughters! Jan Assmann says: »The exchange of women …, as well as the exchange of goods …, serve to establish social coherence and the practice of cohesive attitudes such as altruism, sense of responsibility, community consciousness, solidarity, etc. « (1990, p. 238). The statement is barely to outbid with more cynicism. The coequal nomination of women and goods is in and of itself, a monstrosity; even more outrageous is the hypocrisy with which this inhumane business is glossed over. Undoubtedly, the women of the nobility of the states obliged to pay tribute were kept as hostages; they had to ensure the safety and compliance of possible contracts, claims, and charges. So did Horemheb, Sethi I and later Ramesses II, who even went so far as to mark his harem slaves with his name (Desroches Noblecourt 1986, p. 181 f). And, in fact, as ranchers do it with their cattle: With branding.
(The global trade in women and girls – a modern form of slavery – with a 2008 estimated annual profit of $ 35 billion, along with the equally lucrative arms and drug trade, is at the top of the profit list of patriarchal greed and violence.) Mr. Assmann should be satisfied. The scale of women-trafficking has reached the peak of ›social coherence‹.
»Indeed, the complete destruction of the enemy belongs to victory,
but also the capture and deportation of the vanquished belong to it. «
Stolen Children of Foreign Countries
Helck only casually mentions one of the most abominable crimes of the wars: On a picture we see Soldiers carrying children who they had thrown upon their shoulders (Helck 1971, p. 19). It is hardly a compassionate salvation, but the robbery of children. Other depictions show little children being led by soldiers to the waiting pharaoh, whom they had to worship on their knees and praise his greatness and grace. Egyptologist Erika Feucht referred to the subject in two specialized articles (SAK 17, 1990, pp. 184–204 and HÄB 30, 1990, pp. 29–48) »The rest that my sword left over« a warlord boasted, »was brought as prisoners; tens of thousands of women and children were marked with fire-stamps and made into slaves. «
Above all, the children of defeated princesses were lusted for by the Egyptian king, who he demanded as a ›pledge of loyalty‹ from the princes. They were imprisoned in the fortresses of the Egyptian rulers and ›re-educated‹ [brain-washed] so that they could ›listen to the language of the people in the retinue of the king and to forget their mother tongue‹. Proud of his disgraceful crime, the inflated ruler announces:
»These, their princely children worship my face,
They kiss the ground and fall down in front of me.
I give them to the gods of this land. «
The deportations and hostage-taking are already documented from the Old Kingdom: »Harchuef describes how he pacified the foreigners (meaning Nubia) and brought two rulers of these countries safely with cattle and goats to the residence, together with the princely children and the Nubian generals who were with them. « (Feucht HÄB 1990, p. 30) In the New Kingdom, the abductions take on indescribable extents. The princes and the defeated sent »›to my majesty all their children with many gifts of gold and silver‹, says Thutmose III … « (ibid.). This description is followed by many more. The princes‘ children of all conquered countries are kidnapped to Egypt. Some accompanied by their parents, the others as orphans of the murdered relatives. Of the ›gifts‹ offered to the ruler, the children of the princes are first named, as »the most important of the prey. « At the same time, the king lets praise himself and Feucht comments with understanding and empathy: »Thus, the burning of incense before the ruler and his worship in recognition of his divinity, which is to appease in its anger, but at the same time, it is to interpret as a sign of submission. «
Under the title ›What happened to the children of the vanquished‹, more religiously embellished legalizations of these disgraceful deeds follow: »His Majesty filled the workhouses of the temples and temple settlements with the prisoners, as commanded by his father, the god Amun. The working house of the temple of Amenhotep III is filled with slaves consisting of the children of the prince of every country. God Amun makes the inhabitants of Kush bring tribute to the Pharaoh, the Asians come with gifts, and they give themselves to you with their children, so that you (the king) give them the breath of life. « This chronicle of the horror appeared in the two specialized organs unnoticed and inaccessible to the reader. But in 1995 Erika Feucht published a bibliography titled ›The Child in Ancient Egypt‹. Surprisingly, these horrific acts of the Egyptian rulers found no place in it. Could it be that one fears that public opinion would be less understanding for the atrocities committed by the idealized Egyptian rulers? (UNESCO estimates that around 9 million children are enslaved today, even in countries that tourists like to visit).
The Pedo-criminal Predilection for Children
It is rightly feared that these children were not only enslaved, ›re-educated‹ and ›purified‹ but also sexually abused. The strange disposition of many white men for especially young and virginal little girls and boys is documented many times, even in the Bible, and continues to this day. It is not without reason that Ptah-Hotep warns against the sexual relations of older men with little boys in the Old Kingdom. But not much is known about this pathological predilection in Egypt, or has it not been published?
Forced child marriages – clearly, legal rape of children – are still commonplace in many patriarchal parts of the world. The crime against humanity is accepted by all patriarchal governments as ›traditional‹ and as a matter-of-course.
A frightening photo of Stephanie Sinclair became UNICEF’s ›Picture of the Year 2008‹
It shows the unfortunate 11-year-old girl Ghulam from Afghanistan on the day of her engagement with her 40-year-old groom. »Her future husband says he wants to send her to school. But the women in the village of Damarda in the province of the Ghor Province know it better: »Our men do not want educated women. « They prophesy that the child will bear offspring soon. « (Spiegel Online, Dec. 17, 2007)
In India the inhumane practices of the Indo-European conquerors can best be recognized, for they were politically sanctioned by the white lords, the Indo-Aryan caste of the Brahmins (= Earth gods), and up to the present day they are claimed as a ›holy religious law‹. »Child-marriage was not only customary, it was far too strongly recommended by authoritative religious codes. The state, therefore, was not ready to intervene. The only intervention that could expediently occur was over the age of consent within marriage. « (Tanika Sarkar 2001, p. 233) »Abbé Dubois, who lived in India in the nineteenth century, writes in his book, ›Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies‹, of »the strange preference that Brahmins have for children of a very tender age« (quoted by Mayo, 1929, p. 91). Pedo-sexuell perversion in India led to the state and religiously permitted ›child marriages‹; a term that pretends that it involves the marriage of little girls with little boys. But that’s not the case, it is little girls, usually under the age of ten, who are sold to considerably older men. In an essay, the Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore cynically praises child marriage as »the Indian marriage ideal, as the flower of the sublimated spirit, as the triumph over sexuality and materialism, which has gained an enthusiastic understanding of the eugenic raising of the race« (quoted by Mayo 1929 p. 55 f).
In 1891 at the Indian legislation the minimum age for marriage was discussed. Female doctors made a request to the viceroy to ease the situation of the unfortunate children and gave examples of the condition in which such girls were hospitalized after their wedding or crawled on their hands and knees to the hospital: Unable to stand upright, their hips twisted and broken pelvises, with flesh hanging down in shreds, bleeding, sometimes so horribly damaged that medical help was powerless. Some died of these anguishes (Mayo 1929, p. 67). According to an official census of the British government in 1921, 3,200,000 child brides, who died of abdominal injuries or childbirth (Miles 1995, p. 120), were sacrificed to the criminal disposition of pervert male. In 1922, the Indian National Assembly once again dealt with the problem that had lost nothing of its validity after all these years. But the male members of the government vehemently resisted the restriction of their ›right‹, to ›espouse‹ little girls. (According to estimates of the ›Stern‹, in Germany alone 200,000 men are pedophiles or constantly at risk of becoming pedo-criminal. 03. 06. 2008)
»No longer may remain secret the unspoken,
after being cloaked for a long time. « (Friedrich Hölderlin)
Sexually Abused Daughters: Pharaonic Incest
The Old Memphite Nefertem hymn is concerned with »the keeping of the original pair of gods, Shu and Tefnut, against sexual abuse on the part of the ›divine shadow‹, her father, the ithyphallic god of creation« (Kees ZÄS 1925, p. 1). The hymn reflects, as is the case with many myths, a real background.
In dynastic Egypt, the marriage among half-siblings of the court with the purpose to keep the group of ruling caste small was already documented in the Old Kingdom, for »without a doubt, it sufficed that the royal daughter married her half-brother (same father, another mother) to confer the Pharaonic power on the husband. « (Desroches Noblecourt 1986, p. 44) But the fathers took this right as well. One of the three daughters of Djoser (3rd Dynasty) was possibly his ›wife‹ (Beckerath LÄ, I, p. 1112). Sneferu and Menkaure, the ›pyramid builders‹ of the 4th dynasty, are known to have incestuous relationships with their daughters. Thus, in a grave of the Old Kingdom, the following pedigree stands: »King Sneferu. His eldest bodily daughter, Nefretkau. Their son (of the both), the treasurer Neferma’at. His son, the treasurer Sneferukhaf. Thus, Sneferukhaf was a grandson or great-grandson of King Sneferu, who, it seems, had married his own daughter. « (Erman 1984, p. 185) In the Middle Kingdom, evidence has been provided by Amenemhat III, who married his daughter Neferuptah. And there are many testimonies from the New Kingdom that the king ›married‹ his daughters (even while the Queen was still alive). So we know that Amenhotep III in addition to his ›beloved wife Tiye ‹ and his ›extensive harem‹, he impregnated several of his daughters. Sitamun died at the birth of the child her father, Amenhotep III had fathered.
Nefertiti and Akhenaten at the funeral of their nine-year-old daughter who had died
at the birth of the child fathered by her own father
His son and successor, Amenhotep IV, Akhenaten, ›God, Ruler of Thebes‹, ›Who Lives of the Truth‹, ›the Light bringer‹, had besides Nefertiti several female consorts; »he is one of the most famous daughters-Spouses« (Desroches Noblecourt). Christiane Desroches Noblecourt comments euphemistically: »At least three of his daughters were honored with the ritual, tender attention of this ruler. « (Desroches Noblecourt 1986, p. 46) – It is no honor, but a vile assault, the criminal act of a mentally disturbed, immature man.
Commenting on the drama at the court of Akhenaten, Nicolas Reeves writes: »This morbid sexual interest in his children seems to have triggered at least a tragedy: The pictures in the burial chamber of his second daughter show a scene in which a nurse holds a newborn of high rank (recognizable at the presence of fan-bearers). The father-daughter incest, taboo or not … (seems) to have been one of the extraordinary features of this period. « (Reeves 2002, p. 70) The incestuous pedo-criminal father – the »great mystic« (Bonnet), a »prophet like Jesus« (Breasted), »with whom the singing of the birds, the voices of the children, and the scent of the flowers come« (Weigall), »the Genius«, »the world’s first idealist« (Weigall), »the incarnate God« (Aldred) – impregnated his own daughters. The eldest daughter Meritaten gave birth to a girl, nine-year-old. Meketaten paid her father’s sacrilege with her life, and the third, Ankhesenpaaten, gave birth to a boy.
»After the death of Semenkare, Princess Ankhesenpaaten legitimizes by her marriage the accession of Tutankhamun« (Seipel LÄ, I, p. 262); »but not before she was visited in her bridal chamber by her father Akhenaten. The fruit of this union was a little girl who died soon after her birth« (Brunner ZÄS pp. 105-108). After that, the young princess was »entrusted to the aged Ay, the successor of Tutankhamen, as a concubine«, an Egyptologist distorts that the abused girl was paired off to the old man (Brunner-Traut 1987, p. 30). She must also share the bed with the elderly Ay to guarantee him legitimacy as a king. Various authors ask the question of the ›noble motives‹ of incest: »Did the King try to father an heir, after Nefertiti gave birth to the six girls, and did he have to remain true to the line of his Great Wife for this purpose? What was the driving force that led these kings, surrounded by the most beautiful women of Egypt and all the known world, to unite with their daughters?« (Desroches Noblecourt 1986, p. 46) Thereupon an Egyptologist knows the answer: »The ›Holy Family‹ at Amarna desperately needed a son, and Nefertiti’s failure to deliver one must have been a source of sorrow and shame for her. « (Newby 1980, p. 130) Apart from the patriarchal allotment of shame and failure on Nefertiti, this conjecture is all the more astonishing, as it has been proved beyond any doubt that one did not desperately need sons in Egypt because the throne was inherited in the female lineage. But shame did not seem, by no means, to affect the ›touching ruler fathers‹ who sexually abused their daughters. But at least: »The discovery of these facts diminished the acclamation-chorus heard in scientific circles, lay and religious circles whenever the name of the reformer and monotheist [Akhenaten] was pronounced. « (Velikovsky 1960, p. 109) Peter H. Schulze (1988, p. 181) writes to that: So great was the honest indignation of some Egyptologists about this obvious depravity of the pharaohs that they hid, as possible, such texts or references to them in specialist magazines that read only a few colleagues who knew anyway about that.
Thus, the Egyptologists kept the inglorious secret to themselves, to perpetuate before the world the propaganda of the intact, morally superior Pharaohs-world. Schulze, too, finally finds a saving explanation for the incestuous crimes: the designation ›king’s-consort‹ was »in all these cases a pure rank title for the oldest, unmarried princess, so that she could, as replacement in absence, death or banishment of her mother (listen!), fulfill the cultic and protocol duties that only the royal wife was required to perform« (Schulze 1988, p. 181). Obviously, this included the takeover of ›conjugal duties‹, for because of this the daughters became pregnant, not because of the ›cultic and protocol duties‹.
The denial of the facts can also be found in the exhibition-catalog ›Nofret – die Schöne‹ (Nofret – the beautiful); Here is to read: »The multiple occupied marriage between king and princess, so between Amenophis III and Sat-Amun or Ramses II and three of his daughters is a fairly differently assessable finding; there is much to suggest that these were purely nominal and fictitious marriages, to safeguard dynastic interests and justify priestly functions. « (Schoske/Wildung 1984, p. 13) Another women defends the crime as well: »The decisive reasons [for the father’s incest] are, it seems, certainly of a ritualistic type in the environment of the divine society, which is the constant demonstration of the supernatural being of the king, because Pharaoh was first and foremost the incarnated world-organizer. « (Desroches Noblecourt 1986, p. 46)
About Ramesses II, who ›married‹ (to marry replaces in all this cases the f-word) two hundred women from his harem, who are said to have given birth to ninety-six sons and sixty daughters. A. P. Leca writes with unconcealed admiration: »His potency was so great that he even had sexual intercourse with his marriageable daughters, and so he got many children from them. « (1984, p. l27) Incredible! Ramesses III, ›the Efficient‹, ›the Good‹, let immortalize his incestuous relations in his palace of Medinet Habu, »the dwelling place of the living God on earth« (Brunner-Traut 1987, p. 226)
Naked, except for the sandals, Pharaoh fondles with his one hand the chin of his little,
also naked little daughter standing in front of him, while his other hand plays in his bare lap.
Thus is written the ›scientific‹ description of the representation in the temple of Ramesses III. In Medinet Habu, »where the king lived with his daughters during his stay in Thebes wall reliefs depict Pharaoh in a regally equipped folding chair and in front of him, only wearing a crown, jewelry and pointed-toed sandals, a standing girl. In tender gestures, the king fondles the chin of his beloved child, while the young lady is about to caress her father’s arm« (Brunner-Traut 1987, p. 25). The authors avidly overlook the fact that not only the ›beloved child‹ is naked except for a tiara, sandals, and jewelry, naked is also the ›delicately fondling‹ king. It could throw a strange light on the idealized dad if you look right. Another Egyptologist is touched by the fact that the very protagonist of this ›heartfelt scene‹ was the victim of an assassination attempt: »The slender, petite creatures standing in front of their gentleman, – who is enthroning in the jewelry of the blue crown – act as partners in the board game, and hold him fragrant flowers to his nose. « (Lange 1952, p. 172) It is just the lotus flower that tells us that this is not a harmless ›touching‹ scene, but implied sexual abuse; the blossom is a vulva-symbol! »In one case, the king cuddles his graceful counterpart under the chin. One cannot look at the idyll of this informal intercourse without at the same time remembering that this ruler fell prey to a harem intrigue. « (Lange ibid) No wonder hopefully the mothers had enough of seeing abused their little girls by the incestuous God-husband because of his criminal pedophile preferences.
How it looked like with the ›high morality and ethics‹ of the pharaohs and how they abused little girls as pleasure objects, is told in an easily understandable ›fairy tale‹. Sneferu, already mentioned as a pedophile, goes on a pleasure ride on the lake, which begins with the king ordering twenty inexperienced girls with immaculate bodies and young breasts who have not yet given birth. Instead of the clothes, he wants to see them hung with pearl nets. Emma Brunner-Traut comments on the story: »This pleasure journey has a mythological background in that these girls, as Hathor figures, have rowed him, the earthly Re, to symbolic regions. If the girls wore pearl nets ›instead of their clothes‹ and not, ›over their robes‹, as Hathor wore them, even then hardly any modification can be seen into the profane and sensual, for Hathor loves the revelation. « (Brunner-Traut, 1987, p. 25) The sexual debauchery of the ›earthly god Re‹ is not to be valued as profane-sensually, but ›mythical-religious‹. Sneferu was later equated with Horus and deified, as were several of his pedophile cronies. (Note, this article was written more than a decade before the child sexual abuse committed by Catholic priests and boarding school teachers was exposed. Far too little interest is devoted to family sexual abuse in order to protect the children!)
It is noteworthy that especially women, who were socialized in an extremely patriarchal way, show much understanding for the incestuous crimes and gloss them over. One thing is for sure: Without the trivializing, the looking away, the denying, and the silently tolerating, of patriarchal-damaged and submissive women and men, today’s rampant incest would not be possible! The silence of the mothers allows the men the abuse of power. Christa Mulack writes: »Not infrequently women adjust themselves to male desires up to self-denial. In doing so they often expose their own children to male covetousness. « (2006, p. 144)
The Father-Daughter Incest in the Indo-European Patriarchy
Religious scholar Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty examined the origins of father-daughter incest and rape and concludes that these practices. are documented in both the Bible and Indo-European myths. Like the Indo-Iranian and the Indian, Egyptian, Sumerian, Northern European and Greek mythology are full of incest and rape scenes. »Examining the Greek and Celtic material, one begins to suspect that it is Indo-European. Some Freudians (and perhaps many Jungians) would suggest that this is indeed universal, but this must first be proven. « (O’Flaherty 1980, p. 113) Immanuel Velikovsky confirms the Indo-European origin of incest: »The classic authors did not err in their communications of incestuous marriages among the Indo-Iranians or Persians. In religious and juridical texts of the Pahlavi, there are numerous indications for it. « (Velikovsky 1969, p. 109 f)
»It takes little fantasy to imagine how small the step was from fathers‘ right of disposal over their daughters to the breaking down of the incest barrier between father and daughter. In fact, all patriarchal cultures more or less overruled the matricentric incest taboos, and not only for dynastic and ›hereditary-reasons‹ female relatives were married but rather female household members, be they daughters, wards or servants, were always in danger of being sexually abused by the lord of the house or by his brothers and sons. « (Meier-Seethaler 1988, p. 269)
Matriarchal Veneration of the Vulva and Patriarchal Revenge
Rufus Camphausen, who has researched the worship of the yoni/vulva, provides »convincing evidence in his book ›Yoni‹ that women and the yoni were openly or secretly worshiped from the beginning of humanity, and that this worship has continued to this day (Camphausen 1999, p. 14). The worship of the vulva was – as the rock paintings of the Palaeolithic testify – in 100,000 years of matriarchal times just as common as the phallus worship in the 5000 years of patriarchal era.
Indo-European conquerors detested the reverence for women as the creator and birth-bearer of new life and the veneration of the vulva. The hate for the ›gate of life‹ led in dynastic Egypt to the most unimaginable horror, male brain ever has devised: the cutting or tearing out of the female genitals. This monstrosity is the reaction of male envy, of jealousy, hatred, and anger at the worship of the vulva and the female organs of creation. The sadistic removal of the genitals was the most radical means of putting an end to the veneration of women. With the conquerors the veneration cult for the vulva was replaced by the patriarchal phallic cult. In Egypt, its beginning is clearly visible on the Narmer- Palette. The mace in the hand of the chief becomes the elevation and emphasis of his penis. This is the weapon of patriarchy, which since then has been used with incredible brutality against women.
»Examination of female royal mummies led some experts to conclude that these women of the highest caste in Egypt were circumcised. Shandall says that in ancient Egypt, genital operations were limited to the female relatives of rulers and priests. In fact, a large number of Pharaonic circumcised mummies have been found. Since only the privileged classes have been mummified, it appears that the excision was part of female life only in royal circles. Since we know that this is practiced nowadays on girls of all social classes, on many African tribes [and in other parts of the world], it is logical to assume that it has spread from the royal circles to the lower strata of society, and at the same time it has expanded geographically. The spread of this atrocity was excused, legalized and demanded by the world religion called patriarchy. Although sects like Islam and Christianity did not invent it, they did nothing effective to put an end to it. « (Daly 1986, p. 183 f)
From the Neolithic era, when the mummified corpses naturally preserved in the desert sands no mutilated female genitalia were found. But Greek authors like Philo, Ambrosius, Strabo, who traveled to Egypt in the late period, reported that girls in the dynastic time were circumcised. Strabon reports that a particularity of the Egyptians is the circumcision of the girls, which was confirmed by Philo, the Jew: it was indeed a custom among the Egyptians to circumcise boys and girls when they reached puberty. The Christian church teacher Ambrose, who lived in the 4th century AD, noted that among the Egyptians, women were circumcised at the same age as the boys, precisely when men’s sexual desires are inflamed and women’s menstruation begins. Aëtius of Amida, a Jewish physician of the 6th century AD, reported too that the Egyptians practiced clitoridectomy. From him comes the recommendation to remove the clitoris of a girl, before it gets too big (see Leca 1984, p. 431 and Mary R. Lefkowitz, 1998).
Noted Psychiatrist Bruno Bettelheim observed in his care of mentally disturbed, delinquent adolescents that some of them »disappointed and jealous of women because they – the adolescents felt it like that – had the superior sexual organs, often expressed the desire, to tearing out or cutting out the vagina of girls and women« (1975, p. 40). This was also undoubtedly the diseased state of mind of the inventors of this perversion of the Indo-European men in ancient Egypt. Although the circumcision of little girls today is done by women and not by men, »it is generally believed that men impose this custom on women. « (Bettelheim 1975, p. 69) The fight against circumcision is possible only with the consent of Muslim men and imams.
Mention and commentaries on this atrocity are rare and ambiguous among today’s Egyptologists. The topic is treated with extreme cautiousness or completely omit; also, by patriarchal women. Christiane Desroches Noblecourt and Gay Robins 1996, who devoted to women complete bibliographies, do not even mention it. This crime is also mentioned only casually in the Encyclopedia of Egyptology: »No records indicate the circumcision of girls [!] but the mentions of uncircumcised virgins point to this. « (Westendorf LÄ, I, p. 728)
And… they are not ashamed…
When the CNN TV station aired a small girl’s circumcision during a conference in Cairo to draw attention to this catastrophic mutilation of girls. Egyptian hosts were outraged, not about circumcision, but about the fact, that ›Egyptian hospitality was thus discredited‹. They claimed that this circumcision was a staged scene and that the participants had been paid by CNN for this production. Popular President Hosni Mubarak expressed his astonishment; he thought that this custom had disappeared in Egypt! A few years later we read of a »Small revolution in Cairo: a conference of the highest Muslim theologians outlaws female genital mutilation and declares it incompatible with Islam. « (Spiegel December 4, 2006) Nevertheless, not much has changed since then. Rural Egypt in particular sticks to tradition.
Clitoridectomy was also in Europe on the agenda but was gradually replaced by the removal of the uterus. The source of female creative power – a potentially death-bringing part of the body in the eyes of patriarchal gynecologists – has been surgically removed – justified – as ›the sake of cancer‹ in millions of women.
»In the United States, the last proven clitoridectomy for the treatment
of masturbation was carried out 1948 – on a five-year-old girl! «
(Ehrenreich & Englisch, cited by Walker 1993, p. 550)
It is estimated that the grisly mutilation is currently being made on more than 120 million girls. The worst kind, the excision of the entire external genitalia with clitoris and labia major and minor, is called ›Pharaonic Circumcision‹. The fact that hardly anything is done against the mutilation of the girls by the powerful, shows the disregard for the suffering of the women. – A monstrosity.
»Herodotus II, 36 and 104 claims the Egyptians were the first people
who have circumcised. « (Erika Feucht)
Male Circumcision: The assault on male sexuality
The first circumcision of men on adult males is depicted on a
grave-relief in the Egyptian Saqqara of the 6th dynasty (about 2400)
This relief is the oldest evidence of circumcision, discovered in the mastaba of Ankhmahor, vizier of Pharaoh Teti in Saqqara. It is noticeable that it is fair-skinned men who clearly belong to the power elite who are circumcised by dark-skinned, enslaved natives. We would rather expect that it was the other way around, that it was black slaves, who were tortured and mutilated. That leaves questions unanswered, but we can only speculate about that for the time being. Why were white men who belonged to the upper class circumcised? One thing is clear; it is about the circumcision of sexuality, i.e. sexuality suppression. However, what for? We may find an answer from the psychiatrist, sex researcher and sociologist Wilhelm Reich. »For Reich, sexual repression is one of the most important prerequisites for imperialist wars, for wars that are staged by the ruling class against the actual interests of the working masses- « (D. Haensch (1969, p. 67) The kings of the Indo-European conquerors in Egypt constantly waged wars.
»In addition to the willingness to fight, sexual oppression creates the authoritarian
character and thus the prerequisite for the strict classification of the soldier in the strict hierarchical authority structure of the military ruling apparatus. «
Reich is impressively endorsed by James W. Prescott, an American neuro- and developmental psychologist whose research focused on the origins of violence, particularly in connection with the lack of mother-child bond. Based on his research, he concludes that the greatest threat to world peace comes from those nations that raise their children with little physical care and suppress adolescent sexual affection and female sexuality. (James W. Prescott ›Physical Pleasure and the Origins of Violence‹, from ›The Bulletin of The Atomic Scientists‹, November 1975, pp. 10-20 http://www.violence.de/prescott/bulletin/article-d .html)Was male circumcision performed on ›high-ranking officers in charge‹ because they were better prepared for their aggressive, sadistic war profession through sexual repression? A distinction was made according to level of training and task; such as recruits, fully trained soldiers and ›elite attack formations‹. Were the leaders, members of the white Indo-European warrior elite, ›high-ranking officers in charge‹, circumcised and brainwashed? Were they taught that it was an honor to be circumcised as one of the ›warrior elite‹, one of the Pharaoh’s upper class, as an outward sign of his ›belonging and chosen‹ nobility?
»The aggressiveness, brutality and tendency to sadism necessary in war can be maintained by diverting the libidinal energies from the sexual instinct and thus directed towards the instinct for destruction and aggression against the military enemy«, writes Reich in his ›Mass Psychology of Fascism‹. Is there a connection with circumcision – undoubtedly a means of sexual suppression – with the aggressiveness demanded by war, which demands a certain fearlessness, brutality and ruthlessness towards the ›enemies‹ to be defeated?
There is still something to consider: circumcision was at some point prescribed by the Egyptian priests as a religious ritual, and thus high-ranking Indo-European Jews (Moses, the Hebrews) later adopted it and all Muslims for religious reasons.
There is only one word for gun and penis in the Hebrew language: ›za’in‹
By the act of circumcision, mostly without anesthesia, the children are traumatized. Whether the surgery is justified for religious or hygienic reasons – at least half of American boys are circumcised for ›hygienic‹ reasons, what makes parents believe circumcision is for the health of adult men or assume, that boys can only be taught hygiene through mutilation? After all, you do not cut off anyone’s ears, on the grounds that they are then better kept clean.
The jewish mothers look away and suffer, but they do not intervene. The barbaric encroachment, the ›holy tradition‹ is desired, is celebrated, accepted and rationalized by the society. Religion dictates it, and parents obey, as a result of mind control and brainwashing. What kind of strange aggressive conception of God is it that assumes a god craves for the foreskins of little boys and puts that superstition in the place of respect for the physical integrity of the child and sexual satisfaction as an adult? How much submission is required of the people who, against their feeling of humanity, understanding and compassion, are willing to do this to a child?
Interestingly, during circumcision; blood has to flow, even if it is only a drop. The reason for this, it is (also) about the imitation of female menstruation, the monthly symbol of the ability of women to give birth to children. Bruno Bettelheim, a US psychoanalyst and child psychologist who had emigrated from Austria, wrote, that the naturally flowing menstrual bleeding of women could only be generated, through an imitation of a bleeding by the male. It is male’s envy [›womb envy‹ and ›vulva/vagina envy‹] what is repressed and therefore denied in our society, which points out »how and why men in primitive societies inflict wounds to themselves to participate symbolically on the power and strength of women who can menstruate and give birth. « (Bettelheim 1975) For Bettelheim, this is the central force for puberty rites in general, and circumcision and subincision in particular.
The circumcision of a child’s penis is no trivial matter: it is about the circumcision of male sexuality, the human right to physical integrity, the opportunity to enjoy a sexual life, love and happiness in life. Circumcision contributed to the enforcement of patriarchization by helping to overcome maternal values and step into the era of the values of patriarchal men.
Circumcision is a sadistic, barbaric, almost 5000-year-old ›tradition‹
and one of the most ethically questionable relic dating from Bronze Age.
But a tradition of violence against children is not sacrosanct
and worthy of protection!